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Aali Mehemet

 AALI, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official. Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid Pasha. In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier, but after a short time retired into private life. During the Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha, and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of Vienna. 

Aalborg

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop, and chief town of the amt (county) of its name, on the south bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the Cattegat. Pop. (1901) 31,457. The situation is typical of the north of Jutland. To the west the Linifjord broadens into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many islands. North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the mirage is seen in summer. South-east lies the similar Lille Vildmose. 

Weather in UK

Englishmen say «There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes», It means that they like all the seasons, all kinds of weather. Every season is good in its own way. Each person likes this or that season. It depends on his character, mood. They say that Pushkin liked autumn very much. This season is full of colours, bright and tasty. The sky is blue, but sometimes grey clouds appear. The sun shines but it begins to hide behind the clouds. Its rays are not so warm. Autumn is full of vegetables and fruit, mushrooms and berries. There is nothing like Indian summer in autumn. As for me, I like to walk on the carpet of bright leaves listen to the last songs of birds flying to warm countries, look at the nature. It is like a fairy-tale. It fades away and nothing can be done. Soon drizzling rains will begin and everything will be dull and sad. But still I like autumn. Winter in Usinsk is long and severe with dark nights, bitter wings and hard frosts. Even sometimes you can see a quiet winter frosty day. It is snowing. Fluffy soft snowflakes are falling to the ground making a beautiful thick carpet. The icecles glitter in the sun the snow sparkles like diamond. Going outdoors in such weather is pleasant. Many people go to the forests and enjoy sledging and skiing, playing snowballs and making a snowman. As for spring, people in Usinsk long for it and dream about it during long winter days. It comes late but suddenly. I don’t like it because my town becomes grey. But spring is the beginning of new life. Nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The trees begin to bud and soon tiny green leaves will appear. Young green grass appear, fruit trees begin to blossom. Everything looks magic covered with green carpet. Nature looks full of promise. I like summer because we have holiday and enjoy resting after school year. In my opinion every season is beautiful and attractive. As one famous poet said:«I see no reason to speak in prize of any season». It is never too hot or too cold m Great Britain. This is because of the sea, which keeps the island warm in winter and makes the air cool in summer. The winds are also very often in Great Britain. They blow from the south-west two days out of every three. But the warm winds from the Atlantic are very wet. They also bring a lot of rain to the island. The east or north-east winds are cold and dry. The weather very often changes in Great Britain. You can never have the same kind of weather for a long time. In spring, for example, sunshine and showers follow each other so often during the day that an umbrella or a rain-coat are really necessary in Great Britain. The weather in spring is generally mild, but sometimes the days are really cold. The summer is not so cold as on the continent, and warm days in autumn are beautiful. In winter they have all sorts of weather. Sometimes it rains and sometimes it snows. Still, in Great Britain it is never so cold in winter as in our country and they do not get so much snow there as we get here in Russia. The rivers and lakes are seldom covered with ice. As the ice, if there is any, is not thick enough, they seldom go skating on the rivers in Great Britain. But the worst thing about the climate in Great Britain is the thick fog they so often have in autumn and in winter. In London it often mixes with the smoke of plants and factories and they call it the “smog”. It is sometimes so thick that cars may run into one another.

Weather and climate

Climate is the weather a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans and is different in different parts of the world. Some scientists think that the world is becomming hotter. If you compare Moscow winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of our century and at its end you will see that climate has really changed. Winters have become warmer. Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there were winters when it rained on the New Year’s Eve. Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect. During the last 100 years people have produced a lot of carbon dioxide. This gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse. It lets heat get in, but it doesn’t let much heat get out. So the atmosphere becomes warmer. Where does the carbon dioxide come from? People and animals breathe in oxygen, and breathe out carbon dioxide. We produce carbon dioxide when we burn things. Trees take this gas from the air, and produce oxygen. But in the last few years, people have cut down and burn big areas of rainforest. This means there are fewer trees, and, of course, more carbon dioxide! As we see the climate in different parts of the world changes a little from year to year. These changes can be dangerous for our planet, which needs protection. Earth is millions of years old, much older than the humans. We know many of its secrets. Yet there is still much to learn.

The scientific and technological progress

The scientific and technological progress of the 20-th century has allowed people to overcome time and distance, to cover in the twinkle of an eye the vast expanse of our planet. The whole world is open now. The limits and frontiers of the previous period have stopped to exist. We can choose any place on the planet and go there on business or for holiday. We can go to the place of our destination by sea, by air. We can travel by train. If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by plane. It is better to book tickets in advance. On the appointed day you go to the airport by car. Soon you'll board the big air-liner and it will carry you to new lands. When on the plane you may look about. In front of you in the cockpit you'll see a pilot and his crew. Some of the passengers are reclining in comfortable armchairs. There is a kitchenette in the rear part of the plane where the stewardesses are cooking. Presently we take off and in a few minutes the voice informs us about the altitude we are flying. Sometimes it is possible to see the land. It is like a geographical map. Our plane is due to arrive in eight hours. Time passes quickly. The plane arrives at the airport in time. There are other ways of travelling. If you are an adventurer you can travel by hitch-hiking, bicycles, on horseback. Coach tours are not expensive and I like them very much. They are planned as holidays and there is a chance to do a lot of sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time. Last year I went by coach through a few countries and enjoyed the tour very much. During the ten-day holiday we visited Hungary, Slovenia and Italy. Sightseeing was combined with rest. For a few days we stayed at some lovely small hotels. There was no trouble with the luggage because it was taken care of at every night stop. Moreover hotels were carefully selected and booked in advance. People began to travel ages ago. The very first travellers were explorers who went on trips to find wealth, fame or something else. Their journeys were very dangerous but still people keep on going to the unknown lands. Nowadays there are a lot of companies, which can organize your tour, or voyage wherever you like. They will take care about your tickets and make all the reservations needed. If you don’t speak the language of the country you’ll be given interpreters. With modern services you can go around the world you can choose the means of transport you like: plain, train, ship, bicycle or you can travel hiking. As for me I like travelling by car. It is a very convement type because you can stop wherever and whenever you like, have a better look at the places of interest and nature. Besides you need’t reserve tour tickets, carry heavy suitcase. Every year my parents and I go to the South for holidays. The Black Sea is one of the most wonderful places which attracts holiday-makers all over the world. There are many rest-homes, sanatoriums and tourist camps there. But it is also possible to rent a room or a furnished house for a couple of weeks there. As a rule I make new friends there. In the day-time we play volleyball, tennis, swim in the warm water of the sea and sunbathe. In the evening I like to sit on the beach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset. But the greatest dream of my life is to go to the States and see most of its cities and sights. And of course study there at the prestigious university for some time.

Travelling

Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy Picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It’s always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun. Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot. People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where you want. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.

There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes

Englishmen say "There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes", it means that they like all the seasons, all kinds of weather. Every season is good in its own way. Each person likes this or that season. It depends on his character, mood. They say that Pushkin liked autumn very much. This season is full of colours, bright and tasty. The sky is blue, but sometimes grey clouds appear. The sun shines but it begins to hide behind the clouds. Its rays are not so warm. Autumn is full of vegetables and fruit, mushrooms and berries. There is nothing like Indian summer in autumn. As for me, I like to walk on the carpet of bright leaves listen to the last songs of birds flying to warm countries, look at the nature. It is like a fairy-tale. It fades away and nothing can be done. Soon drizzling rains will begin and everything will be dull and sad. But still I like autumn. Winter in Usinsk is long and severe with dark nights, bitter wings and hard frosts. Even sometimes you can see a quiet winter frosty day. It is snowing. Fluffy soft snowflakes are falling to the ground making a beautiful thick carpet. The icecles glitter in the sun the snow sparkles like diamond. Going outdoors in such weather is pleasant. Many people go to the forests and enjoy sledging and skiing, playing snowballs and making a snowman. As for spring, people in Usinsk long for it and dream about it during long winter days. It comes late but suddenly. I don't like it because my town becomes grey. But spring is the beginning of new life. Nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The trees begin to bud and soon tiny green leaves will appear. Young green grass appear, fruit trees begin to blossom. Everything looks magic covered with green carpet. Nature looks full of promise. I like summer because we have holiday and enjoy resting after school year. In my opinion every season is beautiful and attractive.

Seasons and clothes

There are four seasons in the year. Each of them brings different weather and different dresses. When it is hot people wear T-shirts and shorts, light blouses and skirts, sport shoes, socks and sandals. In summer people dress like this in Africa, Russia, Canada, Ireland, Great Britain and America. In cold weather people usually put on warm clothes: jeans and trousers, sweaters and jackets, overcoats and caps. In winter they wear fur coats and fur caps, high boots and mittens or gloves. The proverb says: there is no bad weather, there are bad clothes. Another proverb says: everything is good in its season. When you think what to wear, choose the right dress. Think what is good at the sports ground and what is good at the party and why a long dress looks beautiful on a woman but is funny on a little girl. When you buy clothes, try them on, make sure that they are your size, that they suit you well and that you like their colour.